The President of India is the Head of the Republic of India and as the former head of the executive, legislature and judiciary. The President is also the commander in chief of the Indian Armed Forces. Article 52 to Article 62 of the Indian Constitution deals with the provisions related to elections, powers, oaths and tenure of the President of India. Article 72 deals with the Power of the President to grant pardons, etc. and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
The President of India holds charge of the office for five years. The oath ceremony of the President of India is conducted in the presence of the Chief Justice of India. In the absence of the Chief Justice of India, the oath ceremony is conducted in the presence of the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court.
If the President of India cannot complete their tenure for any reason, then the present Vice President acts as acting President until the next Presidential elections. And if, in any case, the Vice president is also unavailable, then the Chief Justice of India becomes the acting President.
The President of India is elected by the Electoral College, which is composed of the elected members of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and members of the Vidhan Sabha, which is the state legislative assembly.
Why is the President's Oath Ceremony conducted only on 25 July?
India gained independence on 15th August 1947, whereas the Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950. and in the same year, Dr Rajinder Prasad became the President of India without elections. From 25th Oct to 21 Feb 1952, the Lok Sabha and State Assembly elections were held for the first time in India. Subsequently, Presidential elections were conducted on 02 May 1952, and Dr Rajinder Prasad became the first elected President of India.
Dr Prasad was again elected as the President in the year 1957. With this, Dr Prasad became the only President to hold the position for two subsequent terms. Dr Prasad served as the President for 12 years and his term ended on 13 May 1962.
Dr Radhakrishnan became India's second President and served from 1962 to 1967.
Five years later, on May 13 1967, Dr Zakir Hussain became the first Muslim and third President of India. He was the first President whose tenure remained incomplete as he passed away due to a heart attack on May 03 May 1969, in his office. After Former President Hussain's death, Vice President V V Giri became the acting President who resigned after becoming a candidate in the Presidential elections that followed.
After V V Giri resigned, the then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Mohammad Hidayatullah, was appointed as the acting President. After completing the election process, VV Giri became the fourth President on 24 August 1969, held the position till 24 August 1974.
In 1974, India got its Fifth President, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. Ahmed died on 11 February 1977, three years after becoming President, while working in his office. After Former President Ahmed's death, Vice-President BD Jatti became the acting President and served from 11 February to 25 July 1977.
After this, a Presidential election was conducted, and on 25 July 1977, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy became the country's sixth President. Since then, every President has completed their term. For this reason, on July 25, the new President takes an oath. Since then, nine presidents have been sworn in on July 25.
On 25 July 2022, Chief Justice of India N V Ramana will administer the Presidential oath to Draupadi Murmu as the 15th President of India in the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The oath she will take will be:
I, (name), do swear in the name of God (or solemnly affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of the Republic of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well being of the people of the Republic of India.